Government during Electio A Comparative Study of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India

Provincial Assemblies. In case the President is perceived to
be partisan or biased, the caretaker government alone will
not be able to address the issue of providing a neutral
government during the election phase. This also implies
that the spirit of the Constitution does not envisage a
partisan President.
Pakistani experience of Caretake Governments
There have been numerous caretaker governments since
the 8  amendment under which President was given the
power to dissolve the National Assembly and thus dismiss
a cabinet.
Caretaker Government under General Zia ul Haq
and Ghulam Ishaq Khan - 1988:
President General Zia ul Haq was the first to use the powers
under Ar ticle 58 (2) b of the constitution when he dissolved
the National Assembly and dismissed the government of
Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo on May 29, 1988.
He appointed a caretaker cabinet directly under him without
appointing a caretaker Prime Minister . President Zia-ul-Haq
died in an air crash before the elections could be held.
Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who was the Chairman of the senate,
became the acting President according to the constitution
but retained the same caretaker cabinet as was appointed
by his predecessor . The military and more specifically the
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) played an important role in
creating a coalition of political par ties opposing Benazir
Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party. The caretaker government
generally consisted of persons who were opposed to
Pakistan Peoples Party. Despite these moves, Pakistan
Peoples Party emerged as the single largest party in the
National Assembly and its leader Benazir Bhutto was, after
some initial reluctance and securing some assurances
from her , invited to form the next government. The caretaker
government hardly enhanced the perception of neutrality or
even-handedness during the election.
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi's Caretaker Government  
The next caretaker Government was appointed by President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan after he dissolved the 8th National
Assembly on 6th August 1990 using the eighth amendment
and dismissed the government of Prime Minister Benazir
Bhutto on the charges of corruption. He appointed Ghulam
Mustafa Jatoi as the Caretaker Prime Minister who was the
Leader of the Opposition in the dissolved Assembly.
Elections were scheduled for October , 1990. This caretaker
government was obviously and clearly partisan and
Pakistan Peoples Par ty (PPP) charged that the elections
were rigged in favour of the par ties opposing PPP . Islami
Jamhuri Ittihad (IJI) led by Pakistan Muslim League
emerged as the single largest par ty in the National
assembly as a result of the election. 
Short-lived caretaker Government of Balakh Sher
Mazari  1993:
In April, 1993, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved the
9th National Assembly and dismissed the government of
Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. Mr . Balakh Sher
Mazari was appointed as the new caretaker Prime Minster
by the President. Elections were scheduled to be held in July
but Mr . Mazari's tenure ended on May 26, 1993, when the
Supreme Court revoked the Presidential Order and
reinstated Muhammad Nawaz Sharif as the Prime Minister .
However , because of the serious differences between the
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the Prime Minister
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, both resigned from their offices
on July 18, 1993, along with the dissolution of the National
and Provincial Assemblies.
Moin Qureshi's caretaker Government  1993:
Moin Qureshi, a retired World Bank official, was appointed
as the Caretaker Prime Minister as per the agreement
reached between Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Muhammad
Nawaz Sharif through the Chief of Army Staff, General
Waheed Kakar . Waseem Sajjad, the Senate Chairman took
over as the acting President. At the time of his appointment,
Moin Qureshi was residing in the US for the last many years
and people of Pakistan hardly knew him. It was, however ,
felt that as he was a political outsider , he would remain
neutral. Despite the fact, Moin Qureshi was appointed
caretaker Prime Minister with the consent of Muhammad
Nawaz Sharif, he was not satisfied with the neutrality of
Qureshi Government and expressed dissatisfaction after he
lost the election. In general, the election was perceived as
relatively free and fair .
Caretaker Government during Election:
A Comparative Study of
Pakistan, Bangladesh and India

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